Orthotics , also known as orthoses , refers to any device inserted into a shoe, ranging from felt pads to custom-made shoe inserts that correct an abnormal or irregular, walking pattern. Sometimes called arch supports , orthotics allow people to stand, walk, and run more efficiently and comfortably. While over-the-counter orthotic are available and may help people with mild symptoms, they normally cannot correct the wide range of symptoms that prescription foot orthoses can since they are not custom made to fit an individual's unique foot structure.
Orthotic devices come in many shapes, sizes, and materials and fall into four main categories: those designed to change foot function, those that are primarily protective in nature, those that combine functional control and protection, and those that include the incorporation of an ankle brace to the orthotic.
Rigid orthotic devices are designed to control function and are used primarily for walking or dress shoes. They are often composed of a firm material, such as plastic or carbon fiber. Rigid orthotics are made from a mold after a podiatrist takes a plaster cast or other kind of image of the foot. Rigid orthotics control motion in the two major foot joints that lie directly below the ankle joint and may improve or eliminate strains, aches, and pains in the legs, thighs, and lower back.
Soft orthotics are generally used to absorb shock, increase balance, and take pressure off uncomfortable or sore spots. They are usually effective for diabetic, arthritic, and deformed feet. Soft orthotics are typically made up of soft, cushioned materials so that they can be worn against the sole of the foot, extending from the heel past the ball of the foot, including the toes. Like rigid orthotics, soft orthotics are also made from a mold after a podiatrist takes a plaster cast or other kind of image of the foot.
Semi-rigid orthotics provide foot balance for walking or participating in sports. The typical semi-rigid orthotic is made up of layers of soft material, reinforced with more rigid materials. Semi-rigid orthotics are often prescribed for children to treat flatfoot and in-toeing or out-toeing disorders. These orthotics are also used to help athletes mitigate pain while they train and compete.
For severe disorders, ankle-foot orthotics (AFO) can be fabricated. These differ from regular orthotics in that they go up over the ankle to give more control and stablization of both the foot and ankle. The combination of an orthotic and a custom ankle brace is a very powerful way to limit unwanted painful motion in the foot and ankle. There devices are extremely helpful in treating severe flat feet, patients with severe painful arthritis in either the foot or ankle, and a number of other more difficult to treat disorders when regular orthotics are not helping.
Often, the use of orthotics or an AFO can postpone or eliminate the need for surgery.